What are the Layers of Atmosphere?

The atmosphere is a vital component of our planet, encompassing a complex arrangement of different layers. These layers of the atmosphere play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate, weather patterns, and the overall sustenance of life. Imagine if the Earth had no atmosphere – no protective shield to keep us safe. We’d be exposed to harmful radiation from the Sun, and there would be no air to breathe.

Layers of Atmosphere
The layers of the atmosphere are given below,
Troposphere
The troposphere is the layer closest to the Earth’s surface, extending approximately 8 to 15 kilometers above the planet’s surface. In the troposphere, the temperature decreases with altitude as well weather phenomena such as clouds, storms, and rains occur here in this layer.It is colder at higher altitudes due to decreasing air pressure, averaging a decrease of 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer. The troposphere is of utmost importance as it is the layer we inhabit and where all life on Earth exists. It provides us with the air we breathe and shields us from harmful radiation.

Stratosphere
The stratosphere is located just above the troposphere and reaches up to approximately 50 kilometers (about 31.07 mi) above the Earth’s surface. Similar to the troposphere, the temperature in the stratosphere also increases with altitude. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of the ozone layer, which absorbs most of the incoming ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun. The ozone layer acts as a protective shield, safeguarding life on Earth from the harmful effects of excessive UV radiation. Additionally, the stratosphere is a critical layer for air travel, as commercial airplanes fly within this region.

Mesosphere
Above the stratosphere lies the mesosphere, extending up to about 85 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. The mesosphere is characterized by extremely low temperatures, dropping to as low as -90 degrees Celsius. It is in this layer that meteors burn up upon entry, creating mesmerizing shooting stars. Furthermore, the mesosphere plays a crucial role in protecting the Earth from the impact of space debris. It also aids in transmitting radio waves for long-distance communication.

Thermosphere
The thermosphere is situated beyond the mesosphere and reaches an altitude of about 600 kilometers. In this layer, the temperature rises significantly due to the absorption of high-energy solar radiation. Although the thermosphere has extremely high temperatures, it is not noticeably hot due to the low density of molecules. This layer is essential for the operation of satellites and spacecraft, as it facilitates the transmission of radio signals and houses the International Space Station.

Exosphere
The exosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. It extends from the top of the thermosphere to the edge of space. The exosphere is characterized by extremely low atmospheric pressure and a gradual transition into the vacuum of space. This layer contains a sparse distribution of gas molecules, primarily hydrogen and helium. It is here that gases escape into space, which has significant implications for studying the Earth’s long-term climate change.

Importance of Earth’s Atmosphere Layers

The following are the importance of atmosphere layer,
Troposphere: The troposphere is crucial for life on Earth because it contains the air we breathe. It also acts as a buffer, absorbing harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun.
Stratosphere: The stratosphere is vital because it contains the ozone layer, which shields us from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Without the ozone layer, life on Earth would be at risk from excessive UV exposure.
Mesosphere: The mesosphere plays a role in protecting us from incoming space debris by causing most meteors to disintegrate upon entry.
Thermosphere: The thermosphere is important for various reasons, including its role in helping satellites stay in orbit, as it’s where the International Space Station (ISS) orbits. It also enables the transmission of radio signals over long distances.
Exosphere: The exosphere marks the boundary between our planet and the vastness of space. It’s the layer that spacecraft must pass through to leave Earth’s atmosphere.
The layers of atmosphere work together to regulate the Earth’s climate and provide a suitable environment for life to thrive. Each layer has its unique characteristics and importance, contributing to the delicate balance that sustains our planet. Understanding the structure and significance of these layers enables us to appreciate the intricacies of our atmosphere and the fascinating interplay between its different components.

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Preparing For A Career Change

Before you jump into that hot industry, you need to evaluate yourself and prepare for the career change.

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The time has come for a career change. You wish to switch careers and it’s the only thing on your mind these days. Bored, fired, low pay or high ambition, there are any number of reasons for a career change. First things first! Don’t fret. A career change is not as bad these days as it was made out to be in the olden days when there were fewer options for employment. But now, with highly paid jobs available and new skills that can be learnt over a few weeks, things have changed drastically. Many people have given up seemingly secure banking, government jobs etc and have opted for software jobs, creative jobs and even freelance options. All you need then is a bit of courage, a dash of self belief and some clarity of thought and you can join the band of people who have successfully changed careers.

If you are on the edge of changing careers, here are a few things you may want to do to get more clarity on your thought process. As always we must begin the process at home i.e. with ourselves. Firstly take an honest look at why you want to change your career. Junk the trash about bad boss, bad conditions etc because these reasons do not help you in your decision making process. Instead identify aspects about the job that you want, about qualities within you that you feel can be commercially and creatively expanded. In simple terms find out what excites you – meeting people, negotiating, writing, traveling, sports, communicating or whatever else. Once you know that this is the one thing you would like to do for your creative satisfaction then we can zero down to further career options. If on the other hand you are seeking to move because you wish more compensation, faster growth, travel etc, look to identify your qualities and experience that could land the kind of jobs you want. For example if you wish to be a software consultant and you have been working as an accountant, there are many finance related software skills that you can add to yourself to find a software career with an accounting background.

Identify what excites you the most and find a career that works around your passion. There are as many options as you want these days. If you conduct some research, you will be surprised at the kind of options that are available. From working from home to traveling abroad to setting up event management companies to providing creative consultancy, you can hop on to any career you wish. Normally most ex-jobs (even the most boring ones) leave you with a certain amount of basic skills that come in good stead for your career change. Organizational skills, communication skills, creative skills, administrative skills, leadership skills etc are skills that you can carry along with you to your new job. Identify those skills and work on them in a way that you can leverage them for you new career. This will give you a head start because most principles in business or arts work around a pattern and you can slot it into your pattern.

Find people you know in the new career you would like to get into and meet as many people in that business as you can. Their advise on how the industry works, the skill sets required and so on will be invaluable. Based your research you can narrow down your search to the courses or skills you need to add and where from. The process will also help you meet many new people who could be valuable resources in the new career search. It also helps to gain experience on the side, by working on projects or part time jobs.

A career change can be the one decision that could change your life for the better because it is a decision you would have taken consciously and responsibly. It is a decision you have taken for your own good and therefore you will work at it diligently and carefully and with a lot of love and care. In most cases it is a passion for that kind of work or the result of your work that motivates you and both reasons augur well for you in the career. Thee will be some initial set backs – the cash flows may not be heavy in the beginning, new places and new environments might be daunting but it will all pass. Once you are up and over that learning curve nothing can stop you. Good luck!

Elementary Education in Orissa

Whenever we are talking about Developed nation, suddenly education comes to picture with other major indicators. The recognition of this fact has created awareness on the need to focus upon literacy and elementary education programmes, not simply as a matter of social justice but more to foster economic growth, social well-being, and social stability. In this article we have put some light on elementray education in Orissa.

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“For fifty years we have been a developing nation. It is time we see ourselves as a developed nation.” This is the part of the speech of Dr Abdul Kalam in Hyderabad. Whenever we are talking about Developed nation, suddenly education comes to picture with other major indicators like the growth rate of the economy, birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate (IMR), and literacy rate. These indicators are all interconnected with each other and the literacy rate has been the major determinant of the rise or fall in the other indicators. There is enough evidence even in Orissa to show that a low literacy rate correlates with high birth rate, high IMR, and decrease in the rate of life expectancy. The recognition of this fact has created awareness on the need to focus upon literacy and elementary education programmes, not simply as a matter of social justice but more to foster economic growth, social well-being, and social stability.

The Constitution of India casts an obligation on the State to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14. The literacy rate in Orissa during 1951 was 15.8% against the all India average of 18.3%, which increased to 63.6% in 2001 against the all India average of 65.4%. While the male literacy rate of 63.1% in the State in 1991 increased to 75.9% in 2001, the female literacy rate increased from 34.7% to 51.0%. There has been a steady improvement in the literacy rates of the State over successive decades, which is a result of expansion of educational infrastructure both quantitative and qualitative.

In 1950-51, there were 9,801 Primary Schools with 16,525 teachers and 3.15 lakh students. There were 501 Upper Primary Schools with 2,569 teachers and 40,000 students. Also there were 172 High Schools with 2,247 teachers and 16,000 students. Since 1950-51, there has been a considerable expansion in the number of educational institutions, enrollment and number of teachers at all levels during successive plan periods. In 2003-2004, there are 44,416 Primary Schools with 52.54 lakh enrollment and 97 lakh teachers in the State. There is one Primary School for every 3.5 Sq.Km area. The state government has established 14, 233 Upper Primary Schools for each 10.94 km area in the State.

Issues of Concern

Education is the key to social & economic development of any society. It encompasses every sphere of human life. Level of literacy has a profound bearing on the level of human development. There are major issues, which are directly or indirectly concerned with the education in Orissa. First, the dropout rate in primary and upper primary schools is become a major issue of concern. In the same time dropout rate become a major setback in the increasing literacy rate which was at the primary stage 33.6%. But if you compare girls dropout rate with boys, the dropout rate for girls was 35.4% and for boys 31.9%. Dropout rate at upper primary stage was 57.5% in 2003-04. Out of them 56.5% boys dropped out in upper primary stage while 58.6% girls dropped out in the same year. Second issue is infrastructure of school buildings, which are in bad conditions. And the old or unsafe school buildings of our state are inadequate to meet the needs of school children. Many of them one-room (or even open-air) operations with poorly paid teachers.

Steps taken by the State Government

Orissa government has always made concerted efforts to provide education to all. Some major initiatives were taken to offer quality education for a brighter future not only for Oriyas but also for the state, at last for the nation. Some steps were directed towards the reform and renewal of state’s education system. In the same time there has been a considerable expansion in the number of educational institutions, enrolment and number of teachers at all levels during successive plan periods.

The central and state governments have been expanding the provision of primary formal and non-formal education to realise the goal of Universilisation of Elementary Education (UEE). Elementary education is recognised as a fundamental right of all citizens in India. The directive principles of state policy envisage UEE as one of the major goals to be achieved and mandated in a timeframe. As per guidelines adopted at the national level, the State aims at providing access to Primary Schools within one kilometer and Upper Primary Schools within three kilometers from habitations having 300 or more and 500 or more respectively. In order to achieve the goal of Universalisation of Elementary Education and to improve the quality, steps have been initiated to engage more 9,563 para teachers under State Plan.

Government of India’s flagship programme ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ was launched on nation-wide scale to universalize elementary education by providing for community ownership and monitoring of the school system. The objectives of the programme are compulsory Education to all the Children of 6-14 years age group by 2007. Under the programme, there were 780 new primary schools, 2,771 new upper primary schools were opened and. 25,594 Swechasevi Sikhshya Sahayaks were appointed in 2003-04. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme calls for community participation through effective decentralisation – involvement of Village Education Committee (VEC), Members of Panchayat Raj institutions and Womens’ group. It ensures transparency and accountability of the school system to the community. To lesson the burden of Directorate of Higher Education, the state government has been established three regional Directorates in Bhubaneswar, Berhampur and Sambalpur. Regional Directors of these Directorates have been vested with similar powers of Director of Higher Education. Today, access to the qualitative education is reducing in Orissa. The reason is a lack of budget, weak governance and decline of physical infrastructure, shortage of teachers and their low salary, obsolete teaching plans, poverty and malnutrition, and absence of parents and society participation.

Huddles to achieve the Goal

Funds become major hurdle for every developmental programme in Orissa. In some cases, it is surplus and government cannot utilize the fund within the required timeframe. In the other side, it is deficit. In every step and in every stage, we extend our hand in front of the Central government, financial institutions for funds. How do you education keep the education aside? The government does not have money for primary education. Well, the fiscal deficit is surely a problem, but that could not be excused during a downturn if it is used for opening up the way to developed nation. The Government of Orissa fully endorses the approach on universalisation of elementary education and the scheme ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ should be given the highest priority. But when we are heading towards success of the programme, we do not have fund to provide the study materials to the students. With the assistance from Central Government, the Orissa Government has been providing the study materials every year. For a state like Orissa, the government needs 3.5 crores books for the students up to VII class.

Generally, the government was sanctioned eight crores every year. In the current year budget, only four crores has sanctioned, whereas approximately 30 crores required for the printing of study materials. Now, It is become routine issue for the government to sanction inadequate fund and demand more money at the neck of the moment when the books should reach at the end user. This is not only creating an obstacle in the time bound programme but also spoil the valuable time of the students for struggling with the course without courseware. Here I have highlighted one issue, which is occurred in every year at the beginning of academic year. Government has been compromising the issue without thinking the future of the small kids. Though it is a routine issue, then why Government is not considering this issue seriously?

Some other issues like educational infrastructure and appoint good teachers with good salary are also taken into consideration. When we are appointing good teachers for this programme, we should think about the other side of the coin (i.e good remuneration). The state government appointed 40,846 Shiksha Sahayaks under several schemes including District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) and Sarba Siksha Abhijan (SSA). Due to deficit budget the Shiksha Sahayaks are compromising with the situation and ready to work in less salary (i.e. Rs 1500 per month), which is less than the wage of a bonded labour. In spite of that the State Government is unable to provide their share at least in time to the Shiksha Sahayaks. How would we expect quality education from a teacher who is struggling to survive in this expensive society? Recently, the State Government has decided to hike the monthly honorarium of the Siksha Sahayaks from Rs 1500 to Rs 2000. This decision was taken at a high-level meeting presided over by Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik on October 20. This will cost the State Exchequer an additional Rs 25 crore per year. Obviously, zero percent credit goes to the State Government. Though Central Government is supporting 75 percent of the estimated expenditure, this additional hike will be added to the aided account. If Sarba Siksha Abhijan is become a flop programme, then the credit goes to the state government. The major barrier is deficiency of fund.